European aerosol phenomenology − 8: Harmonised source apportionment of organic aerosol using 22 Year-long ACSM/AMS datasets


  • Chen Gang
  • Canonaco Francesco
  • Tobler Anna
  • Aas Wenche
  • Alastuey Andres
  • Allan James
  • Atabakhsh Samira
  • Aurela Minna
  • Baltensperger Urs
  • Bougiatioti Aikaterini
  • F. de Brito Joel
  • Ceburnis Darius
  • Chazeau Benjamin
  • Chebaicheb Hasna
  • Daellenbach Kaspar R
  • Ehn Mikael
  • El Haddad Imad
  • Eleftheriadis Konstantinos
  • Favez Olivier
  • Flentje Harald
  • Font Anna
  • Fossum Kirsten
  • Freney Evelyn
  • Gini Maria
  • Green David C
  • Heikkinen Liine
  • Herrmann Hartmut
  • Kalogridis Athina-Cerise
  • Keernik Hannes
  • Lhotka Radek
  • Lin Chunshui
  • Lunder Chris
  • Maasikmets Marek
  • Manousakas Manousos I
  • Marchand Nicolas
  • Marin Cristina
  • Marmureanu Luminita
  • Mihalopoulos Nikolaos
  • Močnik Griša
  • Nęcki Jaroslaw
  • O'Dowd Colin
  • Ovadnevaite Jurgita
  • Peter Thomas
  • Petit Jean-Eudes
  • Pikridas Michael
  • Matthew Platt Stephen
  • Pokorná Petra
  • Poulain Laurent
  • Priestman Max
  • Riffault Véronique
  • Rinaldi Matteo
  • Różański Kazimierz
  • Schwarz Jaroslav
  • Sciare Jean
  • Simon Leïla
  • Skiba Alicja
  • Slowik Jay G
  • Sosedova Yulia
  • Stavroulas Iasonas
  • Styszko Katarzyna
  • Teinemaa Erik
  • Timonen Hilkka
  • Tremper Anja
  • Vasilescu Jeni
  • Via Marta
  • Vodička Petr
  • Wiedensohler Alfred
  • Zografou Olga
  • Cruz Minguillón María
  • Prévôt André S H


  • European Overview Source apportionment Harmonised Protocol Organic Aerosol Long-term Datasets Rolling PMF

document type



Organic aerosol (OA) is a key component of total submicron particulate matter (PM 1), and comprehensive knowledge of OA sources across Europe is crucial to mitigate PM 1 levels. Europe has a well-established air quality research infrastructure from which yearlong datasets using 21 aerosol chemical speciation monitors (ACSMs) and 1 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were gathered during 2013-2019. It includes 9 non-urban and 13 urban sites. This study developed a state-of-the-art source apportionment protocol to analyse long-term OA mass spectrum data by applying the most advanced source apportionment strategies (i.e., rolling PMF, ME-2, and bootstrap). This harmonised protocol was followed strictly for all 22 datasets, making the source apportionment results more comparable. In addition, it enables quantification of the most common OA components such as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), cooking-like OA (COA), more oxidised-oxygenated OA (MO-OOA), and less oxidised-oxygenated OA (LO-OOA). Other components such as coal combustion OA (CCOA), solid fuel OA (SFOA: mainly mixture of coal and peat combustion), cigarette smoke OA (CSOA), sea salt (mostly inorganic but part of the OA mass spectrum), coffee OA, and ship industry OA could also be separated at a few specific sites. Oxygenated OA (OOA) components make up most of the submicron OA mass (average = 71.1%, range from 43.7 to 100%). Solid fuel combustion-related OA components (i.e., BBOA, CCOA, and SFOA) are still considerable with in total 16.0% yearly contribution to the OA, yet mainly during winter months (21.4%). Overall, this comprehensive protocol works effectively across all sites governed by different sources and generates robust and consistent source apportionment results. Our work presents a comprehensive overview of OA sources in Europe with a unique combination of high time resolution (30-240 min) and long-term data coverage (9-36 months), providing essential information to improve/validate air quality, health impact, and climate models.

more information