Metallic Trace Elements Shipping Profile by PM1 Source Apportionment in a Mediterranean Port City


  • Le Berre L
  • Chazeau B
  • Temime-Roussel B
  • Lanzafame G M
  • Armengaud A
  • Sauvage S
  • Ntziachristos L
  • Marchand N
  • d'Anna B
  • Wortham H

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Shipping emissions in ports can have substantial impacts on air quality and population health in the nearby urban environment. Legislative efforts made in recent years have reduced emissions of some gaseous pollutants but the aerosol chemical composition, in particular metals composition in submicronic fraction, is little documented. More than 30 trace metals have been monitored with two online metals analysers (Xact 625i) in addition to regulated pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NOX, O3 and SO2) and ultrafine particle number during two intensive campaigns in Marseille (France) in the summer 2021. Samples were taken simultaneously along the port berths and on the urban background aerosol site MRS-LCP located 2 km from the port. As the second largest city of France, Marseille represents a challenging environment for source apportionment (SA), as it combines multiple anthropogenic sources including intensive traffic and various industrial activities in addition to shipping. This work presents the SA analysis performed on trace elements using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved with the multilinear engine approach (SoFi Pro) on both sampling sites. Inside the port area, the half hourly metals measurements allowed to define a “shipping” profile by SA analysis. This profile is dominated by Vanadium (V) and Nickel (Ni) and is associated with ultrafine particles (Dmob<70 nm). On a daily scale, the profile correlates with ship arrivals and departures. On the background urban site, PMF results from the summer 2019 showed that a shipping factor enriched in V and Ni could be retrieved. The use of the shipping profile determined inside the port area to constrain PMF run allowed to better assess the contribution of this source on air quality. In addition, sources profile comparison between summer 2019 and 2021 highlights the evolution of shipping emissions following the 0.5% fuels sulfur limit implemented in 2020.

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