Atmospheric Chemistry of 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol: A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the OH-Initiated Degradation under Simulated Atmospheric Conditions


  • Tan Wen
  • Zhu Liang
  • Mikoviny Tomáš
  • Nielsen Claus
  • Tang Yizhen
  • Wisthaler Armin
  • Eichler Philipp
  • Müller Markus
  • D’anna Barbara
  • Farren Naomi
  • Hamilton Jacqueline
  • Pettersson Jan
  • Hallquist Mattias
  • Antonsen Simen
  • Stenstrøm Yngve

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The OH-initiated degradation of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol [CH3C(NH2)(CH3)CH2OH, AMP] was investigated in a large atmospheric simulation chamber, employing time-resolved online high-resolution proton-transfer reaction-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and chemical analysis of aerosol online PTR-ToF-MS (CHARON-PTR-ToF-MS) instrumentation, and by theoretical calculations based on M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ quantum chemistry results and master equation modeling of the pivotal reaction steps. The quantum chemistry calculations reproduce the experimental rate coefficient of the AMP + OH reaction, aligning k(T) = 5.2 × 10–12 × exp (505/T) cm3 molecule–1 s–1 to the experimental value kexp,300K = 2.8 × 10–11 cm3 molecule–1 s–1. The theoretical calculations predict that the AMP + OH reaction proceeds via hydrogen abstraction from the −CH3 groups (5–10%), −CH2– group, (>70%) and −NH2 group (5–20%), whereas hydrogen abstraction from the −OH group can be disregarded under atmospheric conditions. A detailed mechanism for atmospheric AMP degradation was obtained as part of the theoretical study. The photo-oxidation experiments show 2-amino-2-methylpropanal [CH3C(NH2)(CH3)CHO] as the major gas-phase product and propan-2-imine [(CH3)2C═NH], 2-iminopropanol [(CH3)(CH2OH)C═NH], acetamide [CH3C(O)NH2], formaldehyde (CH2O), and nitramine 2-methyl-2-(nitroamino)-1-propanol [AMPNO2, CH3C(CH3)(NHNO2)CH2OH] as minor primary products; there is no experimental evidence of nitrosamine formation. The branching in the initial H abstraction by OH radicals was derived in analyses of the temporal gas-phase product profiles to be BCH3/BCH2/BNH2 = 6:70:24. Secondary photo-oxidation products and products resulting from particle and surface processing of the primary gas-phase products were also observed and quantified. All the photo-oxidation experiments were accompanied by extensive particle formation that was initiated by the reaction of AMP with nitric acid and that mainly consisted of this salt. Minor amounts of the gas-phase photo-oxidation products, including AMPNO2, were detected in the particles by CHARON-PTR-ToF-MS and GC×GC-NCD. Volatility measurements of laboratory-generated AMP nitrate nanoparticles gave ΔvapH = 80 ± 16 kJ mol–1 and an estimated vapor pressure of (1.3 ± 0.3) × 10–5 Pa at 298 K. The atmospheric chemistry of AMP is evaluated and a validated chemistry model for implementation in dispersion models is presented.

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