Assessment of individual and mixed toxicity of bromoform, tribromoacetic-acid and 2,4,6 tribromophenol, on the embryo-larval development of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin


  • Lebaron Karine
  • Mechiri Lilia
  • Richard Simone
  • Austruy Annabelle
  • Boudenne Jean-Luc
  • Coupé Stéphane


  • Tribromoacetic acid
  • Disinfection by-products
  • Seawater
  • Tribromophenol
  • Bromoform

document type



Water chlorination is the most widely used technique to avoid microbial contamination and biofouling. Adding chlorine in bromide-rich waters leads to the rapid oxidation of bromide ions and leads to the formation of brominated disinfection by products (bromo-DBPs) that exert adverse effects on various biological models. Bromo-DBPs are regularly encountered within industrialized embayments, potentially impacting marine organisms. Of these, bromoform, tribromoacetic acid and tribromophenol are among the most prevalent. In the present study, we tested the potential toxicity and genotoxicity of these disinfection by-products, using sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, embryos. We highlighted that tribromophenol showed higher toxicity compared to bromoform and tribromoacetic acid. Furthermore, a synergistic effect was detected when tested in combination. Pluteus cells exposed for 1h to mixtures of DPBs at several concentrations demonstrated significant DNA damage. Finally, when compared to a non-exposed population, sea urchins living in a bromo-DPB-polluted area produced more resistant progenies, as if they were locally adapted. This hypothesis remains to be tested in order to better understand the obvious impact of bromo-DBPs environments on marine wildlife.

more information