Residential coal combustion is a significant contributor to particulate urban air pollution in Chinese mega cities and some regions in Europe. While the particulate emission factors and the chemical characteristics of the organic and inorganic aerosol from coal combustion is extensively studied, the chemical composition and non methane organic gas (NMOG) emission factors from residential coal combustion are mostly unknown. We conducted 23 individual burns in a traditional Chinese stove used for heating and cooking using five different coals with Chinese origins, characterizing the NMOG emissions using a proton transfer reaction time-of-fight mass spectrometer. The measured emission factors range from 1−15 g/kgcoal for bituminous coals and are below 0.1 g/kgcoal for anthracite coals. The emission factors from the bituminous coals are mostly influenced by the time until the coal is fully ignited. The emissions from the bituminous coals are dominated by aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds with a significant contribution of hydrocarbons. The results of this study can help to improve urban air pollution modeling in China and eastern Europe and can be used to constrain a coal burning factor in ambient gas phase positive matrix factorization studies.