Removal of NAPL from columns by oxidation, sparging, surfactant and thermal treatment


  • Jousse Florie
  • Atteia Olivier
  • Höhener Patrick
  • Cohen Grégory


  • Remediation Columns Oxidant Thermal Surfactant Sparging

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In this paper, four treatment techniques commonly applied to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) removal from soil are compared in column experiments with pure sand containing a residual Light Non- Aqueous Phase Liquid (L-NAPL) contamination. Oxidation is tested through the injection of Fenton reagent, with persulfate, and combined with sparging with the injection of ozone. Surfactant treatment was conducted at low flow rates with Tween®80. Sparging was conducted by air injection but at a low flow rate of 1 mL min1. Finally several columns were thermally treated at a temperature of 80 C. The results showed high removal (>90%) for all techniques used, although only thermal treatment on BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) reached 100% efficiency. The main limiting factors of each technique were: (i) for oxidation, the solubility of the substance limited the removal; (ii) for surfactant both the solubility in the surfactant and the type of surfactant are important; (iii) for sparging, the main factors are contaminant vapor pressure and porous media grain size; (iv) for thermal treatment, the limitation arises from the contaminant vapor pressure and the medium hydraulic conductivity. A comparison with literature data shows that the results are consistent with most of the studies conducted on one technique.

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