Parameters optimization using experimental design for headspace solid phase micro-extraction analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in waters under the European water framework directive


  • Gandolfi F.
  • Malleret L.
  • Sergent M.
  • Doumenq Pierre

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The water framework directives (WFD 2000/60/EC and 2013/39/EU) force European countries to monitor the quality of their aquatic environment. Among the priority hazardous substances targeted by the WFD, short chain chlorinated paraffins C-10-C-13 (SCCPs), still represent an analytical challenge, because few laboratories are nowadays able to analyze them. Moreover, an annual average quality standards as low as 0.4 mu g L-1 was set for SCCPs in surface water. Therefore, to test for compliance, the implementation of sensitive and reliable analysis method of SCCPs in water are required. The aim of this work was to address this issue by evaluating automated solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined on line with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Fiber polymer, extraction mode, ionic strength, extraction temperature and time were the most significant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters studied. To determine the suitable factors working ranges, the study of the extraction conditions was first carried out by using a classical one factor-at-a-time approach. Then a mixed level factorial 3 x 2(3) design was performed, in order to give rise to the most influent parameters and to estimate potential interactions effects between them. The most influent factors, i.e. extraction temperature and duration, were optimized by using a second experimental design, in order to maximize the chromatographic response. At the close of the study, a method involving headspace SPME (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/ECNI-MS is proposed. The optimum extraction conditions were sample temperature 90 degrees C, extraction time 80 min, with the PDMS 100 mu m fiber and desorption at 250 degrees C during 2 min. Linear response from 0.2 ng mL(-1) to 10 ng mL(-1) with r(2) = 0.99 and limits of detection and quantification, respectively of 4 pg mL(-1) and 120 pg mL(-1) in MilliQ water, were achieved. The method proved to be applicable in different types of waters and show key advantages, such as simplicity, automation and sensitivity, required for the monitoring programs linked to the WFD. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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