Hydrothermal synthesis of 3D cauliflower anatase TiO2 and bio sourced activated carbon: adsorption and photocatalytic activity in real water matrices


  • El Mouchtari El Mountassir
  • El Mersly Lekbira
  • Jhabli Oussama
  • Anane Hafid
  • Piram Anne
  • Briche Samir
  • Wong-Wah-Chung Pascal
  • Rafqah Salah


  • Hydrothermal
  • Composite material
  • Titanium dioxide anatase
  • Photocatalysis
  • Adsorption
  • Pharmaceuticals

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The development of advanced photocatalyst for the complete and sustainable removal of emerging organic pollutants such as pharmaceuticals in wastewater is still challenging. Thus, a new three-dimensional cauliflower of TiO2 immobilized on a bio sourced activated carbon (AC/3D-TiO2) was successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Its morphological and physicochemical properties were wellcharacterized with a pure 3D-TiO2 anatase phase, a high surface area (763 m 2 .g-1) and a cauliflower-shaped morphology composed of TiO2 tubes in a radial direction at a micrometric scale. 3D-TiO2-AC photocatalytic activity on carbamazepine (CBZ), in water showed that around 90% of CBZ elimination is obtained after 4h of exposure, that is 1.5 times more efficient than commercial TiO2 P25. This was confirmed on five pharmaceuticals (CBZ, ketoprofen, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and diclofenac) by measuring their adsorption, elimination, and mineralization in wastewater highlighting the promising application of AC/3D-TiO2 in the treatment of wastewaters.

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