ranged from 1.2 ± 0.7 mg kg À1 dw (Pekalongan) to 2.2 ± 0.4 mg kg À1 dw (Tegal). The most toxic PCB congener, PCB 118, was detected in all studied regions, with the highest proportion found in Tegal. Source analysis indicated that PCBs in the sediments mainly originated from Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1248. Compared to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), some OCPs were found with concentrations which potentially posed an adverse effect. Our findings suggested that more attention should be paid to ensure sustainable shrimp culture facing such a risk of the OCPs and PCBs.