Development of an automated system for the analysis of inorganic chloramines in swimming pools via multi-syringe chromatography and photometric detection with ABTS

authors

  • Chehab Rana
  • Coulomb Bruno
  • Boudenne Jean-Luc
  • Robert-Peillard F.

keywords

  • Post-column reaction
  • Swimming pools
  • Free chlorine
  • Multi-syringe chromatography
  • Inorganic chloramines

document type

ART

abstract

Inorganic chloramines are disinfection by-products resulting from the unwanted reaction between chlorine used as disinfectant in swimming pools and nitrogenous compounds brought by bathers. This parameter (total chloramines or combined chlorine) is currently measured on site by a colorimetric method that does not allow to measure only inorganic chloramines. In this paper, a multi-syringe chromatography system combined with a post column derivatization is applied for the first time for the specific detection of the three individual inorganic chloramines (monochloramine, dichloramine and trichloramine). These latter ones are separated using a low-pressure monolithic C18 column, and separately detected after a post-column reaction with the chromogenic reagent ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-diammonium salt). Development of two ABTS reagents provides discrimination of chlorine and monochloramine that are not separated on the column. Optimization of the experimental conditions enables determination of inorganic chloramines with very good detection limits (around 10 µg eq.Cl2 L-1) without interferences from other chlorinated compounds such as organic chloramines or free available chlorine. The validation of the whole procedure has been successfully applied to real swimming pools samples.

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