An update of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides. Part 1: new molecules, metabolism, fate, and transport


  • Giorio Chiara
  • Safer Anton
  • Sánchez-Bayo Francisco
  • Tapparo Andrea
  • Lentola Andrea
  • Girolami Vincenzo
  • van Lexmond Maarten Bijleveld
  • Bonmatin Jean-Marc

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With the exponential number of published data on neonicotinoids and fipronil during the last decade, an updated review of literature has been conducted in three parts. The present part focuses on gaps of knowledge that have been addressed after publication of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides in 2015. More specifically, new data on the mode of action and metabolism of neonicotinoids and fipronil, and their toxicity to invertebrates and vertebrates, were obtained. We included the newly detected synergistic effects and/or interactions of these systemic insecticides with other insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, adjuvants, honeybee viruses, and parasites of honeybees. New studies have also investigated the contamination of all environmental compartments (air and dust, soil, water, sediments, and plants) as well as bees and apicultural products, food and beverages, and the exposure of invertebrates and vertebrates to such contaminants. Finally, we review new publications on remediation of neonicotinoids and fipronil, especially in water systems. Conclusions of the previous WIA in 2015 are reinforced; neonicotinoids and fipronil represent a major threat worldwide for biodiversity, ecosystems, and all the services the latter provide.

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